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Periods of European influence in Sub-Saharan Africa:

Mercantile Era (1450-1850) Bibliography: Ethnicity in Africa, 1700-1850, Historical Maps of Africa

Industrial Colonial Era (1850-1950) Scramble for Africa, Colonialism links

Neo-colonialism (1950- ) Indigenous People's Rights in Africa, Africa Development, Toxic Colonialism, New-Colonialism, Former British Colonies and Commonwealth Members

This section based largely on pp.72-83 from Aryeetey-Attoh, Samuel, ed. Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. 1997.


Map with Mansa Musa on his thrown (1375).


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