Periods of European influence in Sub-Saharan Africa:
Mercantile Era (1450-1850) Bibliography:
Ethnicity in Africa, 1700-1850, Historical
Maps of Africa
- Acquisition of ports, establishment of coastal trading posts &
- Companies trade in natural products of the local region.
- Indigenous systems expanded and redirected.
- Enslavement of Africans across the Atlantic to work as slaves.
- Racism invented to legitimize enslavement.
- Initiated exploration of the interior/settlement of South Africa.
Industrial Colonial Era (1850-1950) Scramble
for Africa, Colonialism
- Exploration of the interior to catalog perceived resources.
- Raw materials and food needed for the industrial revolution.
- State sanctioned acquisition of territory (especially after 1884).
- Reorganization of production to meet colonizer's needs.
- Coastal orientation of linear extractive infrastructure.
- Dual economy of traditional and modern sectors.
- Siphoning off land & labor from traditional to modern sectors.
Neo-colonialism (1950- ) Indigenous
People's Rights in Africa, Africa
Former British Colonies
and Commonwealth Members
- Adoption of Western models of government/revert to one-party states.
- Multinationals perpetuate dual economy & system of dependency.
- Political independence but continued economic/cultural dependence.
- Extractive infrastructure still geared to primary product exports.
- Urban development: coastal orientation, administrative centers.
- Utilitarian materialist philosophy, acculturated elites, modernization.
- Ethnic identity and the modern nation-state in Africa.
- Toxic colonialism- dumping toxic waste in less developed countries.
This section based largely on pp.72-83 from Aryeetey-Attoh,
Samuel, ed. Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa. Upper Saddle River,
NJ: Prentice Hall. 1997.
Map with Mansa Musa on his thrown (1375).
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