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Geography of Africa 321 - Final Study Guide - Winter 1998


Week Seven Population Geography of SubSaharan Africa
 Arithmetic population density
Physiological population density
Age and sex cohorts
Birth rates
Child fosterage
Death rates
Demographic transition model
Dependency ratios
Doubling time
Infant and child mortality
Impaired fertility
Sterility
 Polygyny
Postpartum abstinence
Refugee
Internal refugee
Economic refugee
Rate of natural increase
Fertility rates
Replacement fertility rate
Cumulative
Reciprocal
Nested
Power structures
Discussion Questions in Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa Text: p.144

a) How is the slave trade related to the cumulative effects of traditionally high fertility?

b) How does poverty lead to high fertility?

c) Why is women's status in society so closely linked to fertility rates?

d) What are the limitations of the national population pyramid model demonstrated in class?

e) How does decision making at various scales (local, national, international) affect the reproductive choices made in a household?


Weeks Eight-Nine Agricultural Development in SubSaharan Africa

 Traditional farming systems
Permanent cropping
Shifting cultivation
Mixed farming
Intercropping/polyculture
Rotational bush fallow
Compound farming
Pastoralism
Cash crop farming
Monoculture
Semicommercial farming
 Commercial farming
Marine fishing
Rural infrastructure
Land degradation
Green revolution
Rural infrastructure
Appropriate technologies
Agrobased industries
Communitybased cooperatives
Integrated rural development
Soil tilth
Discussion Questions in Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa Text: p.322

a) What advantage do traditional pastoralists and subsistence farmers gain from raising a diversity of animals or crops?

b)What is the fundamental difference between traditional subsistence farming and modern commercial farming in terms of the ultimate goal of each? Compare and contrast the pattern of production for each system.

c) What does Bill Rau say that African peasants have to teach modern scientists and economists?

d) How did colonial governments in West Africa get the peasants to grow peanuts?


Week-Ten Forest Degradation and Desertification
 Agroforestry
Meteorologic drought
Deforestation
Desertification
Drought
Stripcropping
Forest ecosystem management
Biodiversity
 Forest degradation
Agricultural drought
Hydrologic drought
Soil conservation
Water conservation
Soil degradation
Selective logging
Woodfuel consumption
Discussion Questions in Geography of Sub-Saharan Africa Text: pp.57-58

a) Why does Madagascar have such a high degree of endemism among its species?

b) What role do trees play in agroforestry food production systems? How do trees benefit soil systems?

c) Why is it advantageous for a multinational corporation to subcontract out the production to the peasant?

d) How does the fragmentation of the rainforest into small pieces disturb the ecological equilibrium?


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