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Geography - Bibliographies and Citations

Citing Evidence
  • Essays and assignments often include cited evidence to illustrate a point or support and prove a thesis. Evidence includes the expert opinion of scholars in the field, facts (a statement which is true and verifiable), statistics, illustrations, examples, maps, etc.
Giving Credit
  • To cite evidence means to acknowledge and give credit to the source.
Citations Required
  • You must cite any and all evidence you borrow from other writers be it in the form of a statistic, a fact, a borrowed idea, a direct quotation (in "quotation marks"), or a summary or paraphrase of an another's words.
  • Failure to give such credit is plagiarism which will not be accepted and may result in a failing grade.
In-text Citations
  • I require in-text citations [for example (Smith 23)] and a standard bibliography at the end. (APA, MLA, or any standard form, just be consistent; see links about citation styles below)
Up to Date Sources
  • Unless you are doing an historical piece, most of your sources should be current (less than five years old).
Quality of Sources
  • Please never rely on a general encyclopedia as your primary source of information, and limit your use of articles from the "popular press." Use more "scholarly" publications such as academic journal articles, books, and other sources of peer reviewed data and literature.

The following is Copyrighted 1995 by the Institute for Academic Technology. All rights reserved.

May be reproduced in any medium for non-commercial purposes.

The article "Guides for Citing Electronic Sources" appeared in the June 1994 issue of IAT Infobits. Since then, the proliferation of electronic publications and the growth of the World Wide Web have increased the interest in electronic citation guidelines and standards. With many bibliographic citation styles existing for written works (MLA, APA, Chicago Manual of Style, etc.), it isn't surprising that there are several variations for electronic citations as well. From the Hyperjournal-forum listserv, here are some suggested resources to choose from: