Population - distribution and structure
World population density
Mexico population distribution
Why is population distributed unevenly?
World Population & Income 1988
World food production
In addition to geographic distribution . . . Demographers also display the structural variation within particular subgroups of a population.
Population pyramids show a composite of the age and sex of a given population.
Population dynamics and processes
How do people enter and leave a given population?
Births and Deaths
Total fertility rate (TFR) is the average number of children a woman will have between 15-49 years old.
Births - deaths = natural increase
Use the "rule of 72" for calculating doubling time
from the rate of natural increase.
Divide 72 by the rate of natural increase to get the number of years it will take for a given population to double. For example, if you want to know how long it will take to double a given population at a four percent rate of natural increase, divide 4 into 72 and get 18 years.
The average number of years an infant newborn is expected to live.
Access to drinking water.
Over 65 year olds
measure of the impact of the young and old on the more economically productive members of the population
Economically active men and women over 60. In some parts of the world, men and women must continue working as senior citizens.
Why do parents choose to have children?
elderly support (social security)
lack of education
access to contraception
Examples of geographic context:
|Urban: lack of space - apartment rents are expensive, education and waged work are often available for women.||Rural: kids perform chores, lots of space means cheaper rent, traditional culture: women often don't have waged work.|
|More developed countries (MDC) educated workers needed to work in high-tech||Less developed countries (LDC) high infant mortality and no formal system of social security encourage large families so parents have someone to take care of them in their old age. Status of women is often low.|