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Lecture notes for

Development of core areas



Early core areas & agriculture hearths develop where there is

Rivers provide alluvial soils through yearly floods. Floodplains become agricultural hearths.

Agriculture allowed greater population density and changes in:

Hydraulic societies invest heavily in irrigation and terraced fields

The first cities are centers of

The original core of Mexico remains dominant

Rivers provide alluvial soils through yearly floods

Water also provides access to trade

World trade centers:port cities and central places


Industrial location during the industrial revolutions

1st wave:
water, wind, and wood

Why are they there?
Lowell, Mass
Troy, N.Y.
Trenton, N.J.
Georgetown D.C.
Richmond, Va.
Raleigh, N.C.
Columbia, S.C.
Augusta, Ga.

The Fall Line and major cities of the Eastern U.S.

The Fall Line
"River vessels usually cannot travel beyond a fall line and their cargoes must be unloaded there. The falls (see waterfall) also supply water power for the development of industry such as textile and grist mills. For these reasons a fall line often marks a string of developed areas."

Why Virginia's Cities and Towns Are Located Where They Are

2nd wave:
steel, resources, rails

Railroads and motorized shipping overcome friction of distance overland and sea.

Rise of the manufacturing belt of the Northeast.

3rd wave
engines, electricity, and telecom
Automobility & urban sprawl

4th wave
nuclear power, aerospace, electronics, petrochemicals

Rise of the sunbelt.

5th wave
solar power, biotechnology, microelectronics, robotics & information technology

New technologies produce:

Production becomes more flexible and footloose

Example: change in automobile production

Multinational / Transnational Corporations have global operations

Global commodity chains

Examples: Mitsubishi and Volksvagen