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De Anza College___________________________
Social Sciences

Geography 10 - sec. 2 - Fall 1999
Study Guide for the first Midterm

Weeks ONE and TWO

Key Terms:
map, thematic map, cartogram, scale, projections, globe, axis, pole, latitude/longitude coordinates, site and situation, exact/relative location, distance decay, context (cultural, historical and spatial), process, boundary, ecology, four types of regions: 1) formal region, 2) nodal or functional region, 3) perceptual or vernacular region, 4) natural region.

Study Questions:
Define the word "map", Define "perspective", Define "scale" What would be the specialty of an area studies specialist? (a regional geographer). How does the 'Man-Land' tradition differ from the Earth Sciences Tradition? How are flat map projections created? How are they distorted and why? How does scale limit the amount and type of information that can be shown on a map? Distinguish between different types of regions.  How do the borders of different regions differ? Why is Istambul, Turkey located where it is? Explain in terms of site and situation. Where are most major cities in the world located and why? Give an example of distance decay in mapping and explain its causes.


Key Terms:
global climate change, greenhouse effect, greenhouse gasses, (carbon compounds- CO2-Carbon Dioxide, CFC's, CH4-Methane, etc.), fossil fuels, photosynthesis, salt flushing, ocean currents, ice cores, pollen cores.

Study Questions:
What is the greenhouse effect, what human processes are contributing to it, and what are its potential implications?, Which places will be most affected by potential sea level rise?, Why might the earth's climate cool abruptly?  How were scientists able to discover that climate changes occur rapidly? What affect might climate change have on European agriculture and civilization?


Key Terms:
urban sprawl, mass transit, automobility, commute, suburbanization, urban morphology, raison d'être, urban function, perception/mental map, balkanize.
Study Questions:
How did changes in transportation technology change North American cities?  What is the relationship of any city to its hinterland? Contrast urban morphology of a typical city in the U.S. with that of a typical city in Latin America. What factors influence the contents of an individual's personal perception map? What is the relationship between North American urban morphology and the greenhouse effect? How can public transit help reduce our carbon emissions to the atmosphere? What factors determined the location of the rust belt in North America? What innovations allowed industry to spread to the sunbelt?


Key Terms
Hispanic, rainforests, deforestation, biodiversity, sustenance, prosperity, El Niño, convection.

Study Questions:
Describe the geographic distribution of "Hispanics." Explain why this group is too diverse to be understood as a single people.  If Rainforests cover a small part of earth's surface, why is their continued existence considered to be so important? Why does deforestation contribute to the greenhouse effect? Describe the El Niño effect in terms of ocean temperature, currents, and related weather abnormalities in Latin America.

Week SIX

Key Terms:
nation, state, empire, multinationalism, border, homeland, sovereignty, ethnicity, minority, language group, lingua franca, friction of distance, modernization, industrial revolution, mechanization, population, continentality, maritime climate.

Study Questions:
What is the relationship between political boundaries and the following: ethnicity, economics, and language? Is a 'nation' a contiguous entity? Can culture be 'mapped'? Describe the potential problems encountered by a nation without a state. Explain the history behind the current geographic distribution of Romance languages in Europe. Describe the problems encountered by the break-up of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Why is the population of Russia declining?