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Continued from last time:

Why are the three maps of L.A. so different?

"Human beings think in terms of images, and they know what they're looking for" (Latitude, Longitude, Infinitude - first week's readings).

"The neocortex retains flexible maps of expected reality, working copies of the physical world, against which the maps of perception are compared and incorporated again and again . . . Notions of reality may be primarily a process of interior cartographic revision " (Latitude, Longitude, Infinitude).

"Each new 'picture of the world' has the power to tyrannize beliefs and to overthrow beliefs " (Latitude, Longitude, Infinitude).

Modernity: a forward-looking view of the world that emphasizes reason, scientific rationality, creativity, novelty, and progress.

Modernus: Latin term used to distinguish the Christian from Pagan eras.

Modern - looking forward rather than backward.

First used in English in the 1600's.

"All fixed, fast-frozen relations, with their train of ancient and venerable prejudices, are swept away, all new-formed ones become antiquated before they can ossify. All that is solid melts into air." Engels

Postmodernity: a view of the world that emphasizes an evenness to a range of perspectives in social inquiry, artistic expression, and political empowerment.

"Postmodernism claims that the modern world has changed qualitatively in the last twenty-five years in several areas:technology, economy, culture, and knowledge." (Yapa)

"An explosion in new technologies for the storage, retrieval, and transmission of information and images has given rise to a post-industrial information age. "(Yapa)

"An interconnected network of communication satellites, fibre-optic cables, personal computers, the internet, electronic mail, web pages, and fax machines gives us instant electronic access to any place on the globe."(Yapa)

What effect is this having on culture?

"Postmodernity is a cultural condition reflecting the new economic logic ofpost-Fordist capitalism and its disorienting sense of compressed space and accelerated time."  Harvey  

"In the economy Fordism has been replaced by a post-Fordist system of flexible production."(Yapa)

"Few employees, small in-house inventories,small-batch production, "just in time" delivery systems, spatial decentralization, all made possible by the organizing capabilities of new information technology."(Yapa)

Mass marketing vs. niche markets

Cosmopolitanism: an intellectual and esthetic openness toward divergent experiences, images, and products from different cultures.

"Postmodern culture:the tendency appears in the form of pastiche--a self-conscious mixing of styles toobliterate the dominance of a single style--and the celebration of cultural pluralism. "(Yapa)

"Postmodern architecture is a protest against the dominance of the International Style--tall, plain buildings of steel, glass, and concrete."(Yapa)

"Politics of identity" or "politics of difference." Postmodernism promotes moving away from "metanarratives"--large ideas such as human emancipation or class struggle--as a basis for social action. (Yapa)

multiculturalism, the proliferation of information and images

Now let's shift gears and talk evolving theories of economic development as they relate to culture.

Measuring Development in the modern era.

OECD Maps of Development Indicators

GDP: Gross Domestic Productan estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year.

GNP: Gross National Productsimilar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad.

PQLI: personal quality of life index

Combines life expectancy, income, and literacy

Life Expectancy

Infant Mortality


Income vs. Debt