Theories of Development in the Modern World
First, Second, and Third Worlds.
Measuring Development in the Modern World
Gross Domestic Product
an estimate of the total value of all materials, foodstuffs, goods, and services produced by a country in a particular year.
Gross National Product
similar to GDP, but also includes the value of income from abroad.
personal quality of life index
o Combines life expectancy, income, and literacy
companies that participate not only in international trade but also in production, manufacturing, and/or sales operations in several countries.
Introduction to development theory: Orthodox vs. Dependency
Where did all these poor people come from?
Orthodox theories of development as modernization are based on two assumptions -
The world consists of autonomous countries where social change is viewed as operating within each separate society.
Social change operates as a series of parallel paths for all
societies. Independent countries are defined as societies.
o Stage 5 - age of mass consumption
o Stage 4 - drive to maturity
o Stage 3 - take-off
o Stage 2 - preconditions
o Stage 1 - traditional
At one end, irrational and non-progressive traditional society.
At the other end a rational and progressive modern society.
The process: modernization
'Traditional' society invokes "characteristics of societies which were once universal, but which are now only to be found in poorer countries" (Taylor p.306).
Poverty is seen to be a product of backwardness. Traditional societies can develop by catching up to the leader. (Verhelst)
Challenges to orthodox development theory:
Dependency theory - two paths:
-Rich countries show impressive growth in the core.
-Poor countries show impressive under-development in the periphery.
The development of under-development: some are kept at the
bottom by those at the top.
Core-periphery is seen to also exist inside poor countries. A national elite marginalizes the poor.
Development and under-development - two sides of the same coin.
Wallerstein: World Systems Theory
"History consists of the rise and fall of world empires as distinct entities successively incorporating and releasing mini-systems." (Taylor p.314)
Orthodox models "resolutely avoid the study of the international structure of development and under-development of which the domestic structure is just a part." (Frank)
Poor countries must break away and base development on their own needs.
Dependency theory prescription:
Break away from the core.
Base development on your own needs.
Import substitution industrialization (ISI):
high tariffs protect nascent industries
Orthodox and Dependency theories are both based on modernization.
Development is a process where there is a balance between the roles of the state, the market, and civil institutions.
Economic development vs. Social development. Where would you rather live in the U.S.?
Development and alienation - examples from the video "Affluenza."
Development as discourse
Frank, A.G. 1967 'Sociology of Development and the Underdevelopment of Sociology' Catalyst, Summer 1967, pp.20-73
Johnston, R.J., Derek Gregory, Geraldine Pratt, Michael Watts 2000 The Dictionary of Human Geography Blackwell Publishers, Oxford:
Taylor, Peter 1989 'The Error of Developmentalism in Geography' Horizons in Human Geography, Macmillan, New York: pp.303-319
Verhelst, T 1990 No Life Without Roots Zed Books, London:
Wallerstein, I 1979 The Capitalist World Economy Cambridge U. Press