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the way of life, attitudes, values, and patterns of behavior fostered by urban settings.

Early Cities:
prerequisites for development


Early cities were quite small by our standards.

Problems limiting the growth of early cities:

Emergence of the modern city:

Locational patterns and functions of American cities:

gateway city:
city that serves as a link between one country or region and others because of its physical situation.

economic base:
set of manufacturing, processing, trading, or services activities that serve markets beyond the city.
These activities bring a net flow of income into the city.

basic functions:
economic activities that provide income from sales to customers beyond city limits.

nonbasic functions:
economic activities that serve a city's own population.


urban system:
an interdependent set of urban settlements within a specified region.

central place:
a settlement in which certain products and services are available to customers.

the functional dominance of cities within an urban system.

central place theory:
a theory that seeks to explain the relative size and spacing of towns and cities as a function of people's shopping behavior.

the minimum market size required to make the sale of a particular product or service profitable.