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Vista College
Geography 10 - Spring 2003 - Study Guide for the Second Midterm

Week SEVEN - The sprawl of American cities.

Key Terms:
urban sprawl, mass transit, automobility, commute, suburbanization, urban morphology, perception/mental map, demographics, census data, social construct, suburbanism, social prejudice, gentrification, cultural community, impact fee, . (Urban Geography links)
Study Questions:
How did changes in transportation technology change the morphology and size of North American cities? How did the cultural geography of American cities change? What factors influence the contents of an individual's personal perception map? Why do so many minorities and single people live in the inner city? Why are the suburbs often so culturally homogenous? What are the two main causes of segregation? What does gentrification involve?  How does the new mayor of Las Vegas, hope to raise more money to pay for infrastructure in the city? Why were skyscrapers popular during the Industrial Revolution? Why are they considered outdated today?

Week EIGHT - Human development and the environmental systems

Key terms:

Algal bloom, CFC, PCBS, biological invasion, bioamplification, food chain, trophic level, FERC, "hungry river, armoring, flood plain, alluvial soil, environmental justice, sustainable development, linear vs. circular metabolism,

Study Questions:

What are the three directional changes suggested in "Human Domination of Earth's Ecosystems" as appropriate responses to increased awareness of the consequences of human enterprise? Why is dilution not the solution to pollution? What effect do dams have on the natural systems of a river? How did the environmental justice movement grow out of both the civil rights and mainstream environmental movements? What effect are modern farming techniques having on living soil systems?

Week NINE - Latin America and the Environment

Key Terms:

NAFTA, maquiladora, demographics, census data, rainforests, deforestation, biodiversity, levee, flood plain, Jetty Jacks, raised field agriculture.

Study Questions:

If Rainforests cover a small part of earth's surface, why is their continued existence considered to be so important? How has the relative location of the U.S./Mexican border changed with the emergence of NAFTA? Why is the border region often so polluted? How has the increase in maquiladoras put pressure on Mexican infrastructure? What are some of the steps being taken by the Santa Ana Pueblo to restore the Rio Grande to its original natural state? How did the Tiwanaku endure the harsh climate of the high Andes and establish a thriving civilization so long ago? What caused the collapse of their civilization?

Week TEN - Nations and States of Europe

Key Terms:

nation, state, empire, euro, EU, Regional Economic Community, Cold War, multinationalism, border, homeland, sovereignty, ethnicity, minority, language group, origins of the industrial revolution.

Lecture notes on: nations, states, and languages, nationalism

Study Questions:

What is the relationship between political boundaries and the following: ethnicity, economics, and language? Is a 'nation' a contiguous entity? Can culture be 'mapped'? Describe the potential problems encountered by a nation without a state. What were the root causes of the wars recently fought in the former Yugoslavia? How has nationalism changed in Europe since the end of the Cold War? What was the reason behind the establishment of the European Union.

Week ELEVEN - Russia and the Newly Independent States

conventional oil, proven reserves, OPEC, friction of space, modernization, infrastructure, continentality, maritime climate, fund and flow resources, vital resource.

Study Questions:

Why are supplies of nonconventional oil not a likely substitute for conventional oil? How does Russia overcome the friction of space of its vast territory? How is Russia's access to world trade limited by its geography? What are the obstacles to trans-oceanic shipping? How does economic infrastructure prevent Russia's further political disintegration? Why has electricity traditionally been regulated as a vital resource?

Week TWELVE - East Asian Population growth as seen through statistics

Key Terms:

demography, birth rate, death rate, natural increase, total fertility rate, replacement rate, infant mortality rate, doubling time, population pyramid, income growth, urbanization, land use, anthropogenic.

Lecture on Population

Study Questions:

Why are there two countries with the name China? Where is population in China concentrated and why? What are the three fundamental factors behind trends of land use change in China? Will increased income result in higher food production in China? Why is it so difficult to make long-term projections for China's population growth? What kind of population structure is most likely to lead to continued population growth? (momentum).